Taxation History of the United States

The taxation history of the United States begins in 1760, with colonial protest against the taxation policy of the British, which lead to the American Revolution. Taxes were collected on imports, whiskey and on glass windows for a while by the independent nation. States and localities collected property tax on commercial building and land.

State and inheritance taxes began at the starting of 20th century. The sales tax was started by state government during the 1930s. Income taxes were imposed by the United States for a brief period during the 1890s and he Civil war. It was imposed on a permanent basis from 1913.

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Colonial taxation

During the colonial era, taxes were low a colonial, local and imperial level. The issue whether parliament could impose taxes on the Americans led to the revolution.

  • Stamp Act (November 1, 1765): It was the fourth stamp act that was supposed to be passed by British parliament. According to the act, all legal documents, newspapers, wills, commercial contracts, permits and [playing cards in American colonies was required to carry tax stamp.
  • Townshend Revenue Act (1767): Two tax laws were passed by the Parliament which were proposed by Charles Townshend
  • Sugar Act (1764): Taxes were imposed on the non-British exports like sugar, coffee and cloth.
  • Tea Act (1773): It was a drawback of duty and tariff on tea.
  • Boston Tea Party: The American colonists protested against Great Britain for Tea Act by dumping chests of tea into the Boston Harbor.

Tariffs

Tariff played various roles in the economic history of the United States and trade policy. They were the biggest source of federal revenue between 1790 and the eve of World War I. After that, it was surpassed by income taxes. Tariff also played a role in protection of the local industry. It generated some political stress during the 19th century.

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Excise Tax

Federal excise taxes are applied only to certain items like tires, motor fuel, telephone usage, alcoholic beverages and tobacco products. Often, excise taxes are allocated to special funds which are related to the activity or object taxed. To fund his policy of assuming war debt of American Revolution, tax on distilled spirits was proposed by Alexander Hamilton when George Washington was the president. The legislation was approved by the House after a vigorous debate. Seven cent per gallon was imposed on whiskey.

Income Tax

Income taxes began during the 19th century in the United States when income taxes were imposed for funding the war efforts. The constitutionality of the income taxes was in doubt until the Ratification of 16th Amendment in 1913. Article 1, Section 8, Clause 1 of the Constitution allows imposing of tax, duty, impost and excise. Article 1 Section 8 requires duties, excises and imposts to be uniform throughout United States.

In 1916, Congress re-adopted income tax with 1% tax on personal income over $3000 and 6% on net income over $500,000. By 1918, the income tax was increased to as much as 77% for financing World War 1. The top marginal tax rate kept reducing till it reached 24% in 1929. During the Great Depression, the tax rate keeps increasing steadily.

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Effective Strategies For Dominating Monopoly

Monopoly is a game which can be played for hours, but you will observed that there are a lot of people who don’t take too long to win the game, let us go through some of the points by which, they are able to not only win the game, but also rules it completely .

Effective Strategies For Dominating Monopoly are as follows:

  1. When you have sat down to decide on the rules of the games, are sure that key things that you want other to follow is that they should spend as much as money in the parking, including the takes and the penalties. This will help you get a good amount of love from the other players and it will be used to make them lose the game as well.

game

  1. As soon as the game starts, make sure that you keep on buying as much as the properties you can, no matter it is expensive or cheap, just get all of them. You at least one property from all of the colors on the board so that you have to power of this game and your chances of losing because very less as well.
  1. While playing Monopoly, make sure that you are not buying any of the utilities, like, for example, water works, an electric company are not that useful to win the Monopoly. You can try your hands on railroads, as the other players from all the four sites of the game need to pay to you, whenever the cross it. It is better to buying hotels and properties instead of utilities.
  1. Try to get out of the jail as soon as possible, make sure to get out of them, whole no monopoly has been played. It would be a total waste of time, as other are busy making properties and you are resting does make you a winner from any side. It is ok, to be jail when you have build an empire, so that other don have that much option to but properties, even if you are at the jail.

how to win

  1. Never try to make a trade without getting one in return. It is better to rate with a player who has got Monopoly. It is like the player should be able to give their Monopoly to you, without you giving them in return so that you can multiply in Monopoly and can emerge as a winner.
  1. Once you have got hold of Monopoly, make sure to use the feature of a mortgage, each and everything that you have. Now you can charge other players if they have landed up at your place and can get more and more money and make them poor and win the game as soon as possible.

If you are able to use all these strategies very well, then no doubt that you would be able to win Monopoly in not only less time, but you will be still holding a lot of money and as well as property.

Official Monopoly Website

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Single Mothers and Government Grants

In the United States the divorce rate is about fifty percent. This means there are a lot of single mothers who are struggling to raise their children alone. As a single mother it can be difficult to make up the loss of a second income and often fathers do not meet their financial obligations when it comes to child support. Statistics found that only one in six women will receive some form of spousal support as a result of a court order and of these women only two out of three will actually get the money.

These facts show that once a divorce is finalized a woman’s standard of living can decrease by almost half while on average a man’s standard of living will increase by fifteen percent. However, there is a solution to the poverty of a single mother. The government has established several programs to help single mothers when it comes to setting up an independent household. These programs rely heavily on government grants as their primary source of funds.

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Anytime a government award is used for financial assistance it is considered a grant. Any program started from United States law has the ability to be funded by government grants. Typically grants are set aside for specific individuals or organizations that first need to qualify for the grant under relevant law or program. A grant can be specifically organized by the type of recipient or the type of source receiving the money.

Sources of Grants

Today the United States has twenty-six agencies which offer government grants.These agencies combine together to offer over nine hundred different programs on just the federal level alone. All of the programs fit into twenty-one different categories that include agriculture, art, community development, employment, labor, training and legal assistance.

One popular area that has many grants available is the higher education grant for single mothers. You can go to the financial aid office at your local college to get the paperwork for these government grants so that college can become a possibility for a single mother. College education assistance can come in several forms through the government. The first is direct assistance or a loan from the college itself, grants that don’t have to be repaid from the federal or state government; scholarships sponsored by private organizations, alumni gifts, religious organizations or even the possibility of a work study program.

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Applying for a Grant

Any single mother can apply for a grant through they are a U.S. citizen or resident of a U.S. Territory. A foreign citizen who has lived on U.S. soil for at least three years is also eligible to apply for government grants. When applying for a government grant make sure you carefully read over the paperwork. Many government grant applications can be confusing and a grant application will often be discarded if it isn’t filled out properly. You also want to make sure you understand the qualifications and only apply for a grant that you can qualify for. This will save you time filing out different applications. Getting a government grant as a single mother can be a good way to get out of debt and start a successfully independent life.

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Tips to Applying For Government Grants

Grants are designed to help individuals get the money and finance they need for a project, educational goal or business endeavor. There is a lot of work that goes into getting a grant, but with the right help, tips and methods you can successfully get a government grant for all your needs.

Where to Look

If you want to start a business and need money, there is a chance you can get one through a state run development agency. Many of these agencies provide free government grants for business use. Since there are many small businesses the government is more interested in providing grants to those who need them to operate a small business.

In order to find the agencies that offer everything you need it is best to look through a directory or use the internet. You can look through the CFDA to find fundings for your small business at no charge. After finding several agencies you need then you need to contact them to find out the requirements or documentation that you need in order to apply.

When you ask about a grant you will often get free counseling, training and technical assistance for the business or educational goal you plan to use money for. Remember that when you apply for a grant you are essentially getting a contract with no strings attached. Once you get a government grant you are being contracted by the agency to give them a product or service in exchange for the program budget.

The Benefits

Getting a grant is a better option than a loan since you don’t have to pay back any of the money you get. On the other hand, if you get a loan you will have to start worrying about repayments just a few years after borrowing the money you need.

A Few Helpful Tips

In order to get approved for a government grant you need to have a product, service or education course that fits the objectives of the grantor. This is why getting money for a course; product or service that has a community related goal is easier. You often won’t be able to get a government grant for a program that isn’t listed within the weekly publication: Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance.

When it comes to getting funds you need to submit a formal application along with all the proper documentation. Making a project proposal is often the most difficult part. This is why grant writing is important and is often the deciding factor in getting approved. Make sure the proposal you submit in order to get a government grant contains all the necessary information about the product or service you are proposing. Make sure your business plan describes exactly how it fits with the objectives in order to increase your chances for getting a government grant.

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What Can I Expense on My Taxes as a Fitness Instructor in USA?

There is a famous saying “health is wealth”, which has a great meaning in one’s life. The most valuable and treasured possession is Health for every individual. Most people fail to appreciate the importance of health. Whatever you do, you need to maintain health that is good as because if your health deteriorates you will not be able to deliver satisfactory results.

Whenever you hear the word health, consideration comes only for your body but because proper mental fitness is also needed to maintain a decent health. If your mind is not healthy, then your body will not be healthy too.

Since you are a self-employed, and your job as a fitness instructor, you are yourself a business. It is so because you need to think like a business person himself. That means you needs to maximize your business expenses to lower your taxes. There are certain categories where you can spend as an instructor to claim certain tax deduction on returns of your personal tax:

Equipments and working tools

The equipments that you purchase exclusively for customer use that qualifies justifiable expenses, as well as the repair. Namely treadmills, weights, music system, electronic organiser’s, etc. first aid kit, backpack, a belt bag, diary, stationery, briefcase or a working bag.

Work Uniform

The expense of buying specific working uniform that your employees should have a proper logo on it. The laundry or dry cleaning cost of uniforms. The cost of buying sunscreen for training outside the training centre.

Videos on exercise and audio music

You can also claim for investments that you make on music or videos or the projectors you spent for group sessions. But here it is important to mention that you need to keep all the receipts.

Travels and meals

Food cost while working overtime. The cost of travel by taxis or public transport or even parking. You can also claim for the expense of your car.

meals

Image source: JackedGorilla.Com

Insurance

As a fitness instructor, you can always insure the cost of your work equipment as the safety of your customer is important and for so won’t be neglected.

Training

Short training courses and education expenses can be claimed along with the educational books expense if you are a university student.

gym

Other Expenses

  • Annual fees for the membership to the association you are a member.
  • Cost of attending any competition as a coach, work- related magazines and journals.
  • Buying DVD’s & CD’s, fitness books, nutrition books, internet connections, phone bills, and the cost of maintaining a home office or the training centre.

You can also make claims, for your donations to charities, the fee of the bank for account investments. Fee of the agent who manages your tax returns and even the cost of travelling you make to meet that agent.

Wherever you spend, keep the receipt safely because you will need it as proofs for claims that you are going to make. The better proofs you have, better the chances are to get deductions.

Resources and more information:

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